The Dos And Don
Generally, you don't use apostrophes to make words or abbreviations plural (e.g., CDs, 1970s, hats), but English has a few exceptions. For example, you can use apostrophes when they help eliminate confusion, which happens most often with single letters. Mind your p's and q's is the typical spelling, and we write that the word aardvark has 3 a's, not 3 as.
The Dos and Don
Dos and don'ts is an especially unusual exception. The apostrophe in the contraction doesn't seems to make people want to use an apostrophe to make do plural (do's and don'ts), but then to be consistent, you'd also have to use an apostrophe to make don't plural, which becomes downright ugly (do's and don't's).
What Should You Do? Unless your editor wishes otherwise, if you write books, spell it dos and don'ts; and if you write for newspapers, magazines, or the Web, spell it do's and don'ts. If you're writing for yourself, spell it any way you want. Just be consistent.
Mignon Fogarty is better known as Grammar Girl. She is the founder of the Quick and Dirty Tips network, author of Grammar Girl's Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing, and the creator of the iOS game Grammar Pop. She is also the Donald W. Reynolds Chair of Media Entrepreneurship in the Reynolds School of Journalism and Advanced Media Studies at the University of Nevada, Reno.
Do drink plenty of fluids. A good rule of thumb is to drink at least 1 cup of liquid every time you have a loose bowel movement. Water, Pedialyte, fruit juices, caffeine-free soda, and salty broths are some good choices. According to the Cleveland Clinic, salt helps slow down the fluid loss, and sugar will help your body absorb the salt.
Do drink herbal tea. There is some research to suggest that products containing certain combinations of herbs may help an upset stomach. One research review cited the potential favorable effects of drinking a chamomile preparation that is combined with other herbs in treating diarrhea.
Dilute your water with fruit juice. Water can sometimes be nauseating when you have diarrhea. Ganjhu recommends diluting it with fruit juice, like cranberry or apple juice, to make it easier to tolerate.
Do stick with bland foods. One tried-and-true diet for diarrhea is the BRAT diet: bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast. Low in fiber, bland, and starchy, these foods can help replace lost nutrients and firm up your stools. According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), you can also try boiled potatoes, crackers, or cooked carrots.
Do eat small meals. Too much food will stimulate your gastrointestinal tract to move even more, says Ganjhu, and possibly worsen the diarrhea. Eating five or six small meals, rather than three large ones, can give your intestines a chance to digest the food more easily.
Do wash your hands. Since diarrhea can sometimes be transmitted by person-to-person contact or from contaminated hands, washing your hands after using the bathroom and before you eat or prepare food can help block possible diarrhea-causing pathogens. Handwashing can reduce episodes of diarrhea by about 30 percent, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. To wash properly, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends wetting your hands, then applying soap and rubbing them together for at least 20 seconds. Make sure to include the backs of your hands, between your fingers, and under your nails. Rinse with clean, running water and dry thoroughly. An alcohol-based hand sanitizer containing at least 60 percent alcohol can work, too.
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Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs) entered clinical trials in the mid 1990s to selectively deliver cytotoxic chemotherapy to cancer cells with the goal to increase the antitumor activity and decrease normal tissue toxicity. Over nearly 30 years of development the ADC platform has become established with now 11 approved agents and many more in the pipeline. This review is designed to highlight some of the problems and solutions encountered in clinical development as well as provide practical instruction to both clinical investigators on the efficient protocol design for ADCs and the lessons learned.
Summary: When choosing typography to use in designs, narrow down your options by understanding the most common classifications, looking for typefaces with multiple variations and distinct characters, and pairing typefaces together with consistency and readability in mind.
There is a whole wide world of typefaces out there and finding the right one(s) for your specific scenario can be overwhelming. A typeface, also known as a font family, can set the overall tone and personality of your site or application, as well as increase (or decrease) readability.
Some typefaces, especially sans-serifs, are minimalistic and have unclear distinctions between characters. Check how well your candidate typeface differentiates between the number 1, the uppercase I, and the lowercase L.
Reserve decorative typefaces that have a lot of personality for less-utilized elements, such as headers or illustrations. Decorative typefaces are difficult to read at small sizes and should never be used for body copy.
Like in the decorative typeface examples above, you can assign one typeface to headers and another to body copy. Using two typefaces for body copy makes a design look inconsistent and unrefined and could diminish trust in your brand or company.
Choosing typography for designs can feel overwhelming due to choice overload. With so many options to choose from, you may find yourself picking whatever is most comfortable or readily available in the moment. These typography guidelines will build your confidence in creating designs that maximize usability without sacrificing aesthetics.
Rachel Krause is Senior User Experience Specialist with Nielsen Norman Group. Her areas of expertise include storytelling, UX in agile, design thinking, scaling design, and UX leadership. She has also planned and conducted research on careers, UX maturity, and intranets for clients and practitioners in numerous industries.
While this is true, the aim of the posters is to raise awareness of various conditions through good design practice. We need to be mindful of not just designing or building for our own immediate needs. For example, consider designing for keyboard use only. This is particularly helpful for users with motor disabilities where using the mouse can be quite difficult, especially with precise movements, whereas keyboard use is much easier.
The content for the posters came from our accessibility team in Home Office Digital. Led by accessibility leads Emily Ball and James Buller, we are a group of twelve, each specialising on these conditions: blind and visual impairment, dyslexia, autism and ADHD, D/deaf and hard of hearing, mental health and motor disabilities. Collectively, we learn as much of the conditions as we can to better increase our knowledge so they can be shared within and outside the team.
We are constantly improving and adding to them so please let us know what you think. Understanding accessibility through design means we can build better services for everyone, whatever their access need.
1) GitHub is terrible on mobile so you can't read or view these properly (in fact it's terrible everywhere)2) left justified for dyslexics is a myth. I'm dyslexic and text needs to be justified or I'm lost at the end of every line. It's specific learning difficulties, far better to make it appealing and something I want to read3) don't make long scrolling pages - they are really difficult to understand4) someone needs to sort out the forms here... The auto focus is confusing
As Michael indicates, there is a difference between meeting regulatory accessibility guidelines (US: Section 508 refresh & WCAG 2.0) and meeting the needs of disabled [adult] learners. Simple example pointed out to me by a screen reader user... at the end of a text-only accessible document (typically HTML5). add an H2 Header that indicates End of Document. His best advice though: Download a trial version of JAWS, arrow through the content page by page, and listen to your content before you publish.
As a blind person, I am really pleased that all this is being publicised. However, it should have been proofread and typos removed before making it public. "make button vague" should be "make buttons vague"; "image of video" should be "image or video"; "use a liner" should be "use a linear,; "layouts and and menus" should be "layouts and menus". Keep up the good work though.
Says it all that the *UK* Home Office doesn't create Welsh versions by default. Responding that "we've made it easy for you do your own translations" isn't an acceptable response from *our* own government
These look great and so useful - thank you for creating them! Would there be a problem with using them on HS2 Ltd's internal communications pages? We're doing a visibility push around accessibility in comms in December, and these would be a great resource to share.
This is important to limit distractions, and to accomodate those who cannot take in the information of the animation / slider / moving text at the pace it dictates. This may be true for low vision users, users on the autistic spectrum, users with dyslexia and users with motor disabilities, and also users with cognitive impairments.
Nice posters. They'd be even nicer if you went one more step and made the PDF files accessible (ie, tagged pdf). Visually, they look like tables so you could tag them as tables. Or you could tag them as bulleted lists like you did in this article.
No worries Glen. We've received quite a lot of attention on these posters and are aiming to make them as accessible as we can . Tagging the PDFs will be the next thing we look to improve. Many thanks. 041b061a72