Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has been shown to allow for more accurate ion therapy treatment planning by improving the estimation of tissue stopping power ratio (SPR) relative to water, among other tissue properties. In this study, we measured and compared the accuracy of SPR values derived using both dual- and single-energy CT (SECT) based on different published conversion algorithms. For this purpose, a phantom setup containing either fresh animal soft tissue samples (beef, pork) and a water reference or tissue equivalent plastic materials was designed and irradiated in a clinical proton therapy facility. Dosimetric polymer gel was positioned downstream of the samples to obtain a three-dimensional proton range distribution with high spatial resolution. The mean proton range in gel for each tissue relative to the water sample was converted to a SPR value. Additionally, the homogeneous samples were probed with a variable water column encompassed by two ionization chambers to benchmark the SPR accuracy of the gel dosimetry. The SPR values measured with both methods were consistent with a mean deviation of 0.2%, but the gel dosimetry captured range variations up to 5 mm within individual samples.Across all fresh tissue samples the SECT approach yielded significantly greater mean absolute deviations from the SPR deduced using gel range measurements, with an average difference of 1.2%, compared to just 0.3% for the most accurate DECT-based algorithm. These results show a significant advantage of DECT over SECT for stopping power prediction in a realistic setting, and for the first time allow to compare a large set of methods under the same conditions.
The CALM biorepository and the human and animal tissue technology facilities occupy 1108sq ft. of contiguous laboratory spaces for initial CAP-compliant repository tissue processing and secure storage, routine and advanced tissue technology processing for all human tissue, analytical microscopy, and advanced tissue culture with hypoxic conditions and microscopic culture videography. The secure tissue storage suite houses multiple -86 C freezers and automatic liquid-N2 freezers. The Biorepository tissue intake processing lab and advanced tissue technology facility houses a Ventana Medical Systems Discovery Ultra Biomarker Automated Slide Preparation System, a Li-Cor Odyssey Infrared Imaging System (with In-Cell Western and Fluorescent-labeled ELISA modules) for Western antibody validation, dual-mode UV-Vis micro-volume spectrophotometer (Nanodrop 2000c), various centrifuges, a 5 ft. Class IIA biosafety cabinet, a 5 ft. chemical fume hood, 2 automatic tissue processors; 2 embedding stations; and both motorized and manual microtomes.
The advanced tissue/cell culture suite houses a 4ft. Class IIA biosafety cabinet and both single and dual gas (for hypoxic cultures) incubators; and a computer-controlled Olympus Inverted X51 fluorescent microscope equipped with an Air-Therm temperature controlled and a PROOX 360 O2 regulated stage chamber. Media Cybernetics Image ProPlus Ver 6.3 image analysis software is used for real-time motility analysis and image analysis under normoxic and hypoxic conditions.
Biomarker analysis on intact tissue can be performed using three different modalities: 1) immunohistochemistry, 2) immunofluorescence, and 3) in situ hybridization using multiple detection systems. The tissue technology center uses a fully automated Ventana Discovery Ultra slide preparation system that can reproducibly perform ICH, ISH, FISH and Qdot immunofluorescence techniques on the same instrument platform. This permits time-effective optimization of the most sensitive/specific detection method for any biomarker. IHC, ISH, FISH, and FITC tests may be performed independently or simultaneously. The capability to perform IF/FISH or IHC/ISH techniques on the same tissue section permits the greatest flexibility in the localization of biomarker expression, including miR expression. The system provides extensive options to perform multiple assays (up to 30 slides per run) for more accurate semi-quantitative Immunohistochemistry / immunofluorescence and an efficient capability for methods development to validate and to develop new biomarkers.
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In biology, tissue is a historically derived biological organizational level between cells and a complete organ. A tissue is therefore often thought of as assembly of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues.
The study of tissues is known as histology or, in connection with disease, as histopathology. Xavier Bichat is considered as the "Father of Histology". Plant histology is studied in both plant anatomy and physiology. The classical tools for studying tissues are the paraffin block in which tissue is embedded and then sectioned, the histological stain, and the optical microscope. Developments in electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and the use of frozen tissue-sections have enhanced the detail that can be observed in tissues. With these tools, the classical appearances of tissues can be examined in health and disease, enabling considerable refinement of medical diagnosis and prognosis.
Meristematic tissue consists of actively dividing cells and leads to increase in length and thickness of the plant. The primary growth of a plant occurs only in certain specific regions, such as in the tips of stems or roots. It is in these regions that meristematic tissue is present. Cells of this type of tissue are roughly spherical or polyhedral to rectangular in shape, with thin cell walls. New cells produced by meristem are initially those of meristem itself, but as the new cells grow and mature, their characteristics slowly change and they become differentiated as components of meristematic tissue, being classified as:
The cells of meristematic tissue are similar in structure and have a thin and elastic primary cell wall made of cellulose. They are compactly arranged without inter-cellular spaces between them. Each cell contains a dense cytoplasm and a prominent cell nucleus. The dense protoplasm of meristematic cells contains very few vacuoles. Normally the meristematic cells are oval, polygonal, or rectangular in shape.
Meristematic tissue cells have a large nucleus with small or no vacuoles because they have no need to store anything, as opposed to their function of multiplying and increasing the girth and length of the plant, with no intercellular spaces.
Permanent tissues may be defined as a group of living or dead cells formed by meristematic tissue and have lost their ability to divide and have permanently placed at fixed positions in the plant body. Meristematic tissues that take up a specific role lose the ability to divide. This process of taking up a permanent shape, size and a function is called cellular differentiation. Cells of meristematic tissue differentiate to form different types of permanent tissues. There are 2 types of permanent tissues:
Collenchymatous tissue acts as a supporting tissue in stems of young plants. It provides mechanical support, elasticity, and tensile strength to the plant body. It helps in manufacturing sugar and storing it as starch. It is present in the margin of leaves and resists tearing effect of the wind.
Sclerenchyma (Greek, Sclerous means hard and enchyma means infusion) consists of thick-walled, dead cells and protoplasm is negligible. These cells have hard and extremely thick secondary walls due to uniform distribution and high secretion of lignin and have a function of providing mechanical support. They do not have inter-molecular space between them. Lignin deposition is so thick that the cell walls become strong, rigid and impermeable to water which is also known as a stone cell or sclereids. These tissues are mainly of two types: sclerenchyma fiber and sclereids.Sclerenchyma fibre cells have a narrow lumen and are long, narrow and unicellular. Fibers are elongated cells that are strong and flexible, often used in ropes. Sclereids have extremely thick cell walls and are brittle, and are found in nutshells and legumes.
The entire surface of the plant consists of a single layer of cells called epidermis or surface tissue. The entire surface of the plant has this outer layer of the epidermis. Hence it is also called surface tissue. Most of the epidermal cells are relatively flat. The outer and lateral walls of the cell are often thicker than the inner walls. The cells form a continuous sheet without intercellular spaces. It protects all parts of the plant. The outer epidermis is coated with a waxy thick layer called cutin which prevents loss of water. The epidermis also consists of stomata (singular:stoma) which helps in transpiration.
The complex permanent tissue consists of more than one type of cells having a common origin which work together as a unit. Complex tissues are mainly concerned with the transportation of mineral nutrients, organic solutes (food materials), and water. That's why it is also known as conducting and vascular tissue. The common types of complex permanent tissue are:
Xylem tissue is organised in a tube-like fashion along the main axes of stems and roots. It consists of a combination of parenchyma cells, fibers, vessels, tracheids, and ray cells. Longer tubes made up of individual cellssels tracheids, while vessel members are open at each end. Internally, there may be bars of wall material extending across the open space. These cells are joined end to end to form long tubes. Vessel members and tracheids are dead at maturity. Tracheids have thick secondary cell walls and are tapered at the ends. They do not have end openings such as the vessels. The end overlap with each other, with pairs of pits present. The pit pairs allow water to pass from cell to cell. 041b061a72